France A319 at Paris on Dec 13th 2011, hard landing at +2.66G
Last Update: December 18, 2016 / 17:11:58 GMT/Zulu time
The aircraft received substantial damage requiring both main landing gear struts to be replaced.
The French BEA released their final report in French concluding the probable causes of the occurrence rated an accident have been:
The hard landing is the result of excessive vertical speed because of:
- inputs to lower the nose close to touchdown (at 25 and 20 feet AGL)
- late flare starting at 15 feet AGL
- excessive airspeed (Vref+17 on touchdown) and excessive rate of descent
The pilot flying's high workload in manual flight in high turbulent winds and the lack of a go around call by the pilot monitoring despite objective criteria indicating unstable approach below 200 feet AGL prevented the crew to decide to discontinue the approach.
The BEA complained that the cockpit voice recorder suffered a malfunction which made any cockpit conversation illegible. The investigation thus had only flight data recorder and the testimonies of the flight crew available for the investigation.
Metars in effect at the time of landing were:
LFPG 130730Z 20026G38KT 8000 BKN011 10/09 Q0997 TEMPO 21025G45KT
The BEA analysed that the occurrence illustrated the difficulties of an approach in turbulent conditions in manual flight. The manual control required a considerable workload on behalf of the pilot flying, nonetheless the pilot managed to keep the aircraft within the stabilized criteria descending through 2000, 1000 and 500 feet, however, could no longer cope with the deteriorating conditions below 200 feet AGL, where despite large control inputs the aircraft went outside criteria for stabilized approach several times. While the initiation of the flare is expected at 30 feet AGL, the flare was initiated late at 15 feet AGL only, which did not permit to reduce the rate of descent sufficiently to avoid a hard touchdown.
The pilot monitoring did call out speeds, bank angles and pitch angles on short final, however, did not call for a go-around. The pilot flying however did no longer have the resources available to decide for a go-around.
France's DGAC highlighted the importance of the pro-active role of the pilot monitoring. The lack of action by the pilot monitoring is often a determining factor in the genesis of an accident.
This article is published under license from Avherald.com. © of text by Avherald.com.
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