JetKonnect AT72 at Indore on May 7th 2016, runway excursion on landing

Last Update: July 5, 2018 / 15:26:20 GMT/Zulu time

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Incident Facts

Date of incident
May 7, 2016

Classification
Incident

Airline
JetKonnect

Flight number
9W-2793

Departure
Delhi, India

Destination
Indore, India

Aircraft Registration
VT-JCX

Aircraft Type
ATR ATR-72-200

ICAO Type Designator
AT72

Airport ICAO Code
VAID

A JetKonnect Avions de Transport Regional ATR-72-212A on behalf of Jet Airways, registration VT-JCX performing flight 9W-2793 from Delhi to Indore (India) with 66 passengers and 4 crew, landed on Indore's runway 25 at 19:41L (14:11Z) but veered left off the runway, cross over soft ground and a taxiway before coming to a stop on soft ground. There were no injuries, the passengers disembarked onto soft ground and were taken to the terminal.

The airline confirmed the aircraft departed paved surface after landing. All passengers and crew disembarked safely.

On May 12th 2016 the French BEA reported based on information received from India's Authorities, that the aircraft veered left off the runway and came to stop on an unpaved area near the isolation bay about 60 meters left of the runway center line. The occurrence was rated a serious incident and is being investigated by India's Accident Investigation Board.

On Jul 5th 2018 India's DGCA released their final report concluding the probable cause of the accident was:

Improper cross wind landing technique and failure to use nose wheel steering or differential braking after rudder efficiency was diminished due to decreasing speed caused the aircraft to veer out of runway.

The runway condition was a contributory factor.

The DGCA reported the crew initially opted to perform a VOR approach to runway 07, while on final approach to runway 07 the crew observed tail winds on their Primary Flight Displays, tower also reported winds from 320 degrees and 12 knots prompting the crew to initiate a missed approach and opt for an ILS approach to runway 25. By the time the aircraft had intercepted the localizer the winds had further changed to 160 degrees at 13 knots. The crew observed the runway and PAPI lights from 13nm out and asked ATC to reduce intensity. The crew continued the approach, descending through 600 feet the autopilot was disconnected. When the aircraft touched down it veered to the right, the captain (41, ATPL, 3,943 hours total, 189 hours as pilot in command on type), pilot flying, applied left rudder to correct, however, now the aircraft veered excessively to the left, the first officer (33, ATPL, 2,693 hours total) called out the heading of the aircraft. The aircraft continued to veer left even though full right rudder was applied and went off the runway damaging runway edge lights and a taxiway edge light, travelled 180 meters over soft ground and across taxiway F and came to a stop 78 meters off the center line of the runway.

The aircraft sustained substantial damage including damage to the bulkhead frame aft of the nose wheel well and structural damage to all gear struts.

The DGCA analysed: "With application of correct procedure weather could not possibly have been a contributory factor in accident." The runway had been noticed by DGCA to be in non-compliance and was being worked on to establish compliance. The DGCA wrote: "The tender for resurfacing was awarded, but the work was under progress, and in the meanwhile regular removal of gravels was being done through runway cleaning contract. The potholes were also being repaired as per operational requirement. The expected date of completion was stated to be 30.11.2016. It is evident that from the photographs, inspection report and statements of pilot that, condition of the runway had deteriorated and was a contributory factor in accident."

The DGCA analysed the pilot handling of the landing:

The aircraft continued in crab configuration as the nose landing gear touched down and aircraft started deviating to left. Right rudder was applied for correction and aircraft was brought back to track, however at no time during the landing phase the recordings showed more than a slight use of ailerons into the wind.

As the PIC struggled to bring power lever to ground idle, First officer tried to check if idle gate was locked and their hands obstructed each other. The power lever was later brought down to ground idle by PIC with some effort resulting in aircraft deceleration and Right rudder input was released.

Release of rudder, with insufficient or no aileron into air and nose down inputs, caused the aircraft to again deviate to left due to wind cock effect.

The crew applied right rudder again for approximately 02 seconds to correct the left heading deviation, and a rate of heading change of 3o/s to the right was induced with heading reaching 248o. Meanwhile full thrust reverser was applied. The airspeed had by then reached 95Kt.

This heading excursion was immediately followed by a full left rudder input from the crew, which induced a rate of heading change of 2o/s to the left, while the aircraft speed dropped to 84Kt and continued to drop. This was followed immediately by another full right rudder input which will be maintained until the full stop of the aircraft. However, as the aircraft slowed down, the rudder became less and less effective.

Co-Pilot saw the aircraft veering towards left before the speed reached 70 Kt and is heard shouting “RIGHT RIGHT” at approx. 14:11:17 UTC in the CVR. The PIC did not use nose wheel steering to control the aircraft, as First officer had not called out “70 Knots” as per landing procedures. The aircraft left the runway and entered unpaved surface at approx. 14:11:24 UTC as evident from the CVR, while its speed was around 50Kt.

Crew continued to apply right rudder, none of the crew used use differential braking to steer the aircraft. Use of differential braking was neither part of airline’s procedures and nor taught to crew during training. PIC is heard shouting “STOP” at 14:11:31 UTC and full brakes were applied at 14:11:33 UTC bringing the aircraft to a complete halt at 14:11:35 UTC.

The DGCA quoted Flight Data Recorder analysis by the French BEA:

“The initial crabbed attitude of the aircraft at nose- wheel touchdown initiated a lateral deviation that was corrected. The aileron into the wind and nose down inputs were not of sufficient magnitude to ensure on-ground proper directional stability.

As the initial right rudder correction was released, the aircraft departed again to the left due to wind cock effect. In reaction, the rudder was fully deflected and input maintained for 2s which induced a high rate of heading change to the right. In reaction, the rudder was fully deflected to the left inducing a high rate of heading change in the opposite direction, to the left.

Although a last full deflection of the rudder to the right was applied, the rudder efficiency decreased as the speed continuously decreased and did not allow recovering the deviation of the aircraft to the left.”

Metars:
VAID 071800Z 23008KT 5000 HZ FEW020 SCT025 25/17 Q1011 NOSIG=
VAID 071500Z 18014KT 5000 -TS FEW020 SCT025 FEWCB030 27/19=
VAID 071300Z 10009KT 5000 -TS FEW020 SCT025 FEWCB030 33/16=
VAID 071200Z 09010KT 5000 -TS FEW020 SCT025 FEWCB030 35/17=
VAID 071100Z 32004KT 6000 FEW020 SCT025 FEWCB030 36/16 Q1008=
VAID 070900Z 29005KT 6000 FEW020 SCT025 36/16 Q1009 NOSIG=
Incident Facts

Date of incident
May 7, 2016

Classification
Incident

Airline
JetKonnect

Flight number
9W-2793

Departure
Delhi, India

Destination
Indore, India

Aircraft Registration
VT-JCX

Aircraft Type
ATR ATR-72-200

ICAO Type Designator
AT72

Airport ICAO Code
VAID

This article is published under license from Avherald.com. © of text by Avherald.com.
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