LC Busre SW4 at Huanuco on Nov 5th 2010, gear collapse on landing

Last Update: February 18, 2013 / 16:54:42 GMT/Zulu time

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Incident Facts

Date of incident
Nov 5, 2010


ICAO Type Designator

Peru's Comision de Investigacion de Accidentes de Aviacion (CIAA) released their final report in Spanish concluding the probable cause of the accident was:

The erroneous retraction of the landing gear following 2 bounces on the runway due to an unstabilized final approach and poor crew resource management.

Contributing factors were:

- Although the descent and landing checklists were actioned the crew did not review stabilized approach criteria or procedures for a possible controlled flight into terrain (editorial note: probably meant avoidance of controlled flight into terrain) or missed approach.

- several callouts were non-standard, some callouts were missing

- visual flight during descent and final approach caused the approach to become unstabilized without being detected

- high speed and non moving the thrust levers into idle position as well as lack of corrective control inputs caused the aircraft to bounce repeatedly

- Loss of situational awareness led to the retraction of the landing gear and subsequently collapse

- the manuals of the aircraft do not include procedures for bounced landings

- the manuals of the aircraft do not include procedures for balked landings, in particular go-arounds below 50 feet AGL in visual meteorologic conditions

The captain (42, ATPL, 7,590 hours total, 553 hours on type) was pilot flying, the first officer (34, CPL, 5,348 hours total, 2,050 hours on type). The aircraft was descending towards Huanuco when the crew conducted an approach briefing computing the approach speed determined at 115 knots including compensation for 20 knots of headwind for an approach with full flaps and a Vref of 105 knots, due to the visual approach the crew however did not brief the missed approach, emergency procedures and stabilized approach criteria.

After being established on final approach for runway 07 the crew extended the landing gear and set the flaps to full and actioned the final landing checklists, which ensured the aircraft was properly configured for landing including three greens showing for the landing gear. The winds were reported at 23 knots from 070 degrees (straight headwind of 23 knots). Descending through 500 feet AGL the GPWS made the appropriate call, subsequently the GPWS warned twice "sink rate" before calling "Minimums", neither pilot however made the required call out "visual disregard" to cancel the sink rate warning. None of the required call outs by the first officer, monitoring speed, height or profile was recorded by the cockpit voice recorder, the first officer is only heard to report the landing checklist completed.

The aircraft touched down about 360 meters down Huanaco's runway 07 at 115 knots (Vapp, Vref+10) a first time without thrust levers being retarded, bounced off, touched down a second time about 570 meters down the runway at 119 knots (Vapp+4, Vref+14) without thrust levers retarded and bounced again, the captain called for gear up and flaps, after which the gear was selected up by the first officer however without the power levers in TOGA position. The aircraft touched down a 3rd time at 118 knots about 1200 meters down the runway, the propellers impacted the runway surface, the first officer selected the gear down again, and the aircraft skidded about 600 meters on its belly to a halt about 1800 meters down of the 2500 meters long runway. Feeling the impact of the propellers on the runway surface and the aircraft skidding on its belly the captain pulled both power levers to stop, feathered both props and pulled the hydraulic shut off for both engines. After the aircraft came to a stop, the crew initiated an evacuation of the aircraft.

There were no injuries as result of the belly landing, the aircraft sustained substantial structural damage to its belly at the height of the wings, damage to the landing gear doors, perforations of the fuselage due to impact of propeller blade fragments as well as substantial damage to both engines due to their sudden deceleration however.

The CIAA reported that the cockpit voice recorded showed no change in engine sounds from descending on final approach to after first touch down or bounces, when the aircraft settled on its belly the cockpit voice recording was abruptly ended after recording two propeller impacts with the runway. There was no call to go around recorded on the cockpit voice recorder not did the engine sound suggest the engines were accelerated, the pilots however provided testimony that they had intended to go-around, the cockpit voice recorder did confirm the calls for gear up and flaps however.
Incident Facts

Date of incident
Nov 5, 2010


ICAO Type Designator

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