Chanchangi B732 at Port Harcourt on Jul 14th 2008, overran runway on landing

Last Update: November 3, 2020 / 17:59:47 GMT/Zulu time

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Incident Facts

Date of incident
Jul 14, 2008

Classification
Incident

Flight number
5B-138

Aircraft Registration
5N-BIG

Aircraft Type
Boeing 737-200

ICAO Type Designator
B732

A Chanchangi Airlines Boeing 737-200, registration 5N-BIG performing flight 5B-138 from Lagos to Port Harcourt (Nigeria) with 41 passengers and 6 crew, overran runway 21 while landing at Port Harcourt in drizzle and gusting winds. One passenger received minor injuries in the evacuation and was treated in the airport's clinic, the airplane was damaged in the overrun, the airport reported.

The airline said, that a hevay downpour had made the runway and the taxiway slippery causing the airplane to depart paved surface as it was just turning onto the taxiway after a safe landing. The 45 passengers were evacuated with no injuries.

There are unsubstantiated reports floating around, that the airline had been grounded by the Nigerian CAA in October 2007, resulting in several databases to currently show the airline inoperative and the airplanes in storage.

On Nov 3rd 2020 Nigeria's Accident Investigation Bureau (NAIB) released their final report concluding the probable cause of the accident was:

The decision to land following an unstabilized approach (high rate of descent and high approach speed). A go-around was not initiated.

Contributory factors

1. The deteriorating weather conditions with a line squall prevented a diversion to the alternates.

2. The runway was wet with significant patches of standing water.

The NAIB reported flight 5B-138 was on approach to Port Harcourt and was told to expect runway 21 for landing, thunderstorms were over the field. The crew requested to enter a hold at 3500 feet to wait for better weather. About 20 minutes later tower reported runway 03 appeared better for landing, the crew requested an approach to runway 03 and were vectored for runway 03. The flight crew reported established on the final approach to runway 03 and leaving 2000 feet. A minute later the crew reported the runway in sight and was cleared to land on runway 03. 6 minutes later the crew initiated and reported a go around. The crew subsequently requested runway 21. 11 minutes after the go around the crew reported established for runway 21 5nm out with runway in sight.

The NAIB wrote:

Approach Control acknowledged and instructed NCH138 to report field in sight and thereafter handed over to Tower on 119.2 MHz. When contacting the Tower, NCH138 was cleared to land on RWY 21, wind 0100 /10 kt and was advised to exercise caution due to wet runway. NCH138 acknowledged the clearance.

NCH138 landed hard and bounced three times on the runway. According to the ATC controller, after touch down the aircraft rolled in an s-pattern before it overran the runway. NCH138 made a 180° turn with the right engine hitting the ground. The aircraft came to a final stop on the left side and 10 m beyond the stopway.

The accident occurred at night in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The Aeroderome Rescue and Fire Fighting Service (ARFFS) arrived the scene and commenced rescue operations immediately.

All occupants on board were evacuated; one passenger sustaining a minor injury.

The NAIB reported the aircraft sustained substantial damage as result of the overrun. A NDB installation cable was also damaged.

The NAIB reported the aircraft touched down 1700 meters past the runway threshold, bounced several times, veered left, returned onto the center line but now veered to the right 2100 meters down the runway. Broken pieces of the nose wheel rim and a damaged tyre were found at 2100 meters and 2200 meters down the runway respectively. The aircraft overran the end of the runway, cut the NDB cable, spun around by 180 degrees with the right hand engine hitting the ground and came to a stop 10 meters past the end of the stopway to the left of the runway. The NAIB listed following additional damage:

1. Nose wheel sheared off leaving the bolt behind.
2. No. 2 and 4 Main wheel assemblies were damaged.
3. No. 2 and 4 Main wheel tyres were burst.
4. Both engines ingested gravels/sand and debris.
5. No. 2 Engine tail cone and thrust reverser were damaged.
6. The fuselage nose area buckled.

The NAIB analysed the weather and environmental conditions:

NCH 138 was initially scheduled to depart Lagos (DNMM) to Port Harcourt (DNPO) at 15:30 h, but the flight was delayed until 16:49 h (a one hour 19 minute delay).

The pilots received METAR information of 15:00 and 16:00 for Port Harcourt International Airport as observed: Surface wind direction was 180°, speed 8 kt, visibility 10 km in nil weather, broken cloud at height of 360 m, A few cumulonimbus clouds in several directions at 660 m, temperature 28°C, dew point 24°C and prevailing mean sea level air pressure (MSL) 1011 hPa; the surface wind was from 220° at 6 kt, visibility 5km in thunderstorm and rain showers, broken cloud base 300 m, few cumulonimbus clouds in several directions at 600 m, temperature 28°C, dew point 24°C and prevailing mean sea level air pressure (MSL) of 1010 hPa.

A special meteorological report was issued at DNPO at 16:30 prior to the departure of NCH138 from DNMM. The recorded weather information showed a calm surface wind, visibility 10 km in thunderstorm, broken cloud base 300 m, scattered 600 m cumulonimbus in several directions, and prevailing mean sea level air pressure (MSL) of 1010 hPa.

Furthermore, the 17:00 and 18:00 meteorological reports issued at DNPO prior to the arrival of NCH138 showed calm surface wind, visibility 10 km in thunderstorm, broken cloud base 270 m, scattered 600 m cumulonimbus in several directions, temperature 25°C, dew point 24°C, and prevailing mean sea level air pressure (MSL) of 1010 hPa.

The trend forecast was temporary with variable wind 8 kt, gusting 18 kt, visibility 3000 m in thunderstorm with rain. And the surface wind from 010° at 10 kt, visibility 6 km in thunderstorm with rain, broken cloud base 180 m, scattered 600 m cumulonimbus in several directions, temperature 22°C, dew point 20°C, and prevailing mean sea level air pressure (MSL) of 1012 hPa. The trend forecast was temporary visibility expected to be 3000 m in thunderstorm with rain.

It is evident from the above weather deductions that there was adverse weather activity prior to and after the arrival of NCH138 at DNPO on the day of the occurrence.

In addition, the satellite weather imagery obtained from NiMeT indicated a line squall over Port Harcourt area from 17:00 to 21:00.

It is the practice of the flight crew to request and receive briefing on updated weather information for the departure, enroute and destination. There were no records available to the Bureau indicating that the flight crew received such weather updates prior to the departure.

The NAIB analysed operational considerations:

The Flight Plan for NCH138 showed an endurance of 3 hours and a 50 minutes flight time, however, the actual flight time lasted 1 hour 55 minutes.

NCH138 departed Lagos at 16:49 h and estimated POT VOR at 17:50 h indicating a flight time of about an hour.

On reaching the station and due to weather conditions, NCH138 decided to hold in the vicinity of the airport, considered diverting to the alternates or to Owerri, but were unable to due to line squall. NCH138 carried out a missed approach and then made a second approach to land. This lasted for about 54 minutes.

The aircraft had about an hour endurance left and a few minutes remaining before the closure of Port Harcourt airport at sunset.

The delay on the ground in Lagos for over an hour, the time in holding and considered diversions, the missed approach, the limitations on airport operational hours, unavailable runway lighting system and the diminishing fuel endurance remaining were factors that could have pressured the flight crew into landing the aircraft.
Incident Facts

Date of incident
Jul 14, 2008

Classification
Incident

Flight number
5B-138

Aircraft Registration
5N-BIG

Aircraft Type
Boeing 737-200

ICAO Type Designator
B732

This article is published under license from Avherald.com. © of text by Avherald.com.
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