Corendon B734 at Amsterdam on Oct 2nd 2010, overran runway on landing

Last Update: April 21, 2012 / 17:02:15 GMT/Zulu time

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Incident Facts

Date of incident
Oct 2, 2010

Aircraft Type
Boeing 737-400

ICAO Type Designator

The Dutch Onderzoeksraad (DSB) released their final report concluding the probable causes of the incident were:

- As a result of an early flare manoeuvre, the aircraft landed approximately halfway down the runway.

- The partially deployed speed brakes reduced braking performance.

- The remaining runway and braking performance with partial speed brakes were insufficient for the aircraft to stop prior to the end of the runway.

- The visual conditions and rain at the time of landing may have impaired the crewÂ’s visual depth perception on the runway.

While on appproach to Amsterdam the crew prepared for a landing on runway 18C (3300 meters/10800 feet landing distance available). While descending through FL200, about 15 minutes prior to landing, the crew was advised however they would land on runway 22 (2014 meters/6605 feet landing distance). By that time the crew had already computed their Vref at 140 KIAS and their Vapp at 145 KIAS including 5 knots wind correction for landing at flaps 30 and an intended autobrakes setting II, the crew did not change the settings following the runway change.

The aircraft was cleared to land while descending through 600 feet AGL in heavy rain, windscreen wipers were working at full speed, visibility and sight of the runway however was still reduced.

Descending through 200 feet the crew disconnected the autopilot and flew the rest of the approach and landing manually. The aircraft crossed the runway threshold, the flare was initiated, the aircraft however remained above the runway surface at about 30 feet for a prolonged flare followed by a touch down about half way down the runway, autobrakes engaged, spoilers and speed brakes were deployed, full reverse was selected, the aircraft however overran the end of the runway by about 9 meters. No injuries occurred, the aircraft received minor damage to the nose wheels.

The DSB reported that the aircraft crossed 300 feet AGL at 147 KIAS and 53 feet AGL at 153 KIAS (154 knots above ground), 8 knots above computed approach speed. One second later the throttles were moved to idle and the flare was initiated, 6 seconds later the aircraft was at 15 feet AGL, 13 seconds after closing the throttles the aircraft touched down at 136 KIAS, another 4 seconds later the thrust reversers were deployed and the engines accelerated to 80% N1, brakes pressure of 3000 psi was recorded. The automatic speed brake handle however only extended partially and reached 40 degrees (inflight detent) only.

Wind sensors at the time of landing showed the wind came from 135 degrees at 7 knots meaning a slight head wind component, the airline contested that finding however stating aircraft systems had recorded a tail wind component via the quick access recorders (the DSB turned this down stating they had the more precise measurements and computations).

The DSB analysed that the partial deployment of spoilers could not be explained with the data available. This partial deployment however increased the landing distance required. Deceleration data from the flight data recorder showing up to 0.44G deceleration indicated braking action on the runway was good. The aircraft became friction limited during the roll out however meaning the aircraft's deceleration was limited by the surface friction available thus increasing the landing distance required resulting in more runway distance needed than was available.
Incident Facts

Date of incident
Oct 2, 2010

Aircraft Type
Boeing 737-400

ICAO Type Designator

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