Spicejet DH8D at Kozhikode on Aug 4th 2017, temporary runway excursion on landing

Last Update: July 21, 2020 / 14:59:45 GMT/Zulu time

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Incident Facts

Date of incident
Aug 4, 2017

Classification
Incident

Airline
Spicejet

Flight number
SG-3251

Destination
Kozhikode, India

Aircraft Registration
VT-SUF

ICAO Type Designator
DH8D

A Spicejet de Havilland Dash 8-400, registration VT-SUF performing flight SG-3251 from Chennai to Kozhikode (India) with 70 passengers and 5 crew, landed in Kozhikode in heavy rain at about 08:08L (02:38Z) but veered right towards the runway edge, the right main gear contacted a number of runway edge lights before the crew was able to steer the aircraft back onto the center line. The aircraft taxied to the apron without further incident.

The airline reported flight SG-3251 landed normally in heavy rain at Kozhikode, however, during the landing roll the right main wheels temporarily went over a number of runway edge lights. The aircraft taxied to the apron without further incident.

Passengers reported it appeared the aircraft touched down with one main gear first, when the second main gear touched down the aircraft suddenly veered towards the edge of the runway.

India's DGCA have opened an investigation into the occurrence.

On Jul 21st 2020 India's DGCA released their final report concluding the probable causes of the incident were:

Excessive rudder input by PIC to bring the aircraft on runway centerline while landing on wet runway led to runway excursion.

Unstabilised approach coupled with non-adherence to standard callouts by Pilot monitoring was the contributory factor to the incident.

The pilot in command (52, ATPL/TRI/Examiner, 8,845 hours total, 5,107 hours on type), in short P1, occupied the right hand seat, the captain under training (34, ATPL, 3,740 hours total, 3,500 hours on type), in short P2, occupied the left hand seat and was intended to be pilot flying for the sector.

The DGCA reported the crew performed an ILS approach to runway 10, the crew was advised the runway was wet, visibility was 3000 meters. During the approach light rain began that further intensified to moderate rain. Due to the rain the pilot in command assumed the role as pilot flying for the approach and landing. Although runway 28 was in use the crew was cleared to land on runway 10, winds were reported from 310 degrees at 4 knots.

Following touchdown on the runway the aircraft veered right, the right main gear went off the paved surface about 610 meters past the runway threshold, rolled over soft ground for a distance of about 245 meters about 11 meters from the right edge of the runway, the left main gear remained on the shoulder of the runway. About 1101 meters past the threshold the aircraft was back within the runway edges and came to a stop 1545 meters past the runway threshold. 5 runway right edge lights were damaged. The aircraft sustained minor damage.

The DGCA analysed the aircraft and its systems were no factor into the incident. The DGCA analysed the pilot handling:

At around 34 nm from Calicut, aircraft came in contact with Calicut ATC and tower informed that expect ILS approach on RWY 28 but aircraft preferred for ILS approach on RWY 10. Based on the request of aircraft, ATC Calicut permitted for ILS approach on RWY 10 as wind and traffic permits. At around 10 nm from Calicut, the ATC Calicut reported runway surface condition was wet and visibility 3000 m.

At around 0230 UTC, Calicut ATC informed that light rain over the field and further updated moderate rain over the field. Under training pilot P2 was planned to fly this sector completely, however as a rain was moderate, P1 decided to carry out the landing in consultation with P2. At around 0235 UTC, Calicut ATC cleared VTSUF aircraft for landing on RWY 10 though the runway in use was RWY 28, as requested by aircraft and traffic permitted with wind 3100/04 kt.

DFDR analysis revealed that at around 800’ft RA, auto pilot was disengaged. The approach course set on the control panel is set to 990 (selected heading) instead of 1030 (Runway heading) to compensate for the cross wind component of 40 (Drift angle).

At around 500’ft RA, the crew gave left roll which makes the aircraft heading further away from runway heading 1030 (aircraft heading changed from 990 to 940 ). The left roll leads to more than 01 (one) dot correction of localizer to the right (Max deviation was FR1.88). There after aircraft approach was unstable.

From DFDR, it is inferred that, the aircraft might had landed with a left roll of 6.70 which indicates left wheel touching first with vertical acceleration of 1.77g i.e 3 sec before the touchdown. The aircraft landed slightly right of the center line of the runway which clearly evident from localizer deviation was FL0.54. Right rudder applied upto 220 to orient the aircraft to the runway heading i.e. 1030 (aircraft heading was 96.30 at the time of touch down).

Excessive right rudder input upto 220 given by PIC to bring the aircraft on runway centerline while landing on wet runway led to runway excursion.

...

At around 500’ft RA, the crew gave left roll which makes the aircraft heading to 940 from 990 i.e further away from runway heading 1030. The left roll leads to more than 01 (one) dot correction of localizer to the right (Max deviation was FR1.88). As per spice Jet Operations Manual, para A25.1.3, more than 01 dot deviation of Localizer is consider to be significant deviation and it is the responsibility of the pilot monitoring to call out for significant deviation. However, replay of CVR reveals that no call out was made by P2 (Pilot Monitoring).

At around 500’ft RA, The crew gave left roll which makesthe aircraft heading to 94 deg from 99 deg i.e further away from runway heading 103 deg. The left roll leads to more than 01 (one) dot correction of localizer to the right (Max Deviation was FR1.88). Below 500’ft RA, aircraft approach was unstable. The aircraft landed slightly right of the center line of the runway which clearly evident from localizer deviation was FL0.54. Right rudder applied up to 22 deg to orient the aircraft to the runway heading i.e. 103 deg (aircraft heading was 96.3 deg at the time of touch down).

Excessive right rudder input up to 22 deg given by PIC to bring the aircraft on runway centerline while landing on wet runway led to runway excursion. Then, the aircraft right wheel had entered into the soft land on the right of RWY 10 and whereas left wheel of the aircraft rolled over on the shoulder of the RWY 10.

VOCL 040400Z 34001KT 4000 -RA SCT003 SCT012 OVC080 25/24 Q1010 TEMPO 3000 RA=
VOCL 040330Z 36005KT 3000 -RA SCT003 SCT012 OVC080 25/24 Q1010 NOSIG=
VOCL 040300Z 00000KT 2000 -RA SCT003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1009 BECMG 3000 -RA BR=
VOCL 040230Z 03003KT 3000 -RA SCT003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1009 NOSIG=
VOCL 040200Z 00000KT 3000 -RA SCT003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1009 NOSIG=
VOCL 040130Z 00000KT 3000 RA FEW003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1008 NOSIG=
VOCL 040100Z 00000KT 3000 RA FEW003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1008 NOSIG=
VOCL 040030Z 01004KT 4000 -RA FEW003 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1008 NOSIG=
VOCL 040000Z 01005KT 3000 -RA FEW002 SCT012 OVC080 24/24 Q1008 BECMG 5000 BR -RA=
VOCL 032330Z 00000KT 3000 -RA FEW003 SCT012 OVC080 24/23 Q1008 NOSIFG=
VOCL 032300Z 00000KT 3000 RA SCT004 SCT012 OVC080 24/23 Q1008 NOSIFG=
VOCL 032230Z 36006KT 3000 -RA SCT005 SCT012 OVC080 24/23 Q1007 NOSIG=
VOCL 032200Z 36004KT 3000 -RA SCT005 SCT015 OVC080 24/23 Q1007 NOSIFG=
Incident Facts

Date of incident
Aug 4, 2017

Classification
Incident

Airline
Spicejet

Flight number
SG-3251

Destination
Kozhikode, India

Aircraft Registration
VT-SUF

ICAO Type Designator
DH8D

This article is published under license from Avherald.com. © of text by Avherald.com.
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